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Elevator internal structure

Jan 12, 2018

Elevator internal structure is the core of the elevator, including the inverter, brake, buffer, safety gear, speed limiter, the introduction of devices, automatic switches, transformers, rectifiers, knife switches, switches, contactors, electromagnetic relays, selectors, Make electrical appliances, terminal switches, the door chain contacts, brake solenoid, light signal plate, floor light signal, signal display, signal bell, rail, shaft, machine room, car elevator, platform, counterweight


By adjusting the frequency of the radio to achieve the purpose of adjusting the elevator speed and power saving.


Responsible for stopping the elevator movement, electric and spring-driven components,


The bumper is the elevator safety device that provides the last type of safety protection. It is installed in the hoistway pit of the elevator, just below the car and the counterweight. When the elevator moves upwards or downwards, it will be cushioned by the buffer due to wire rope breakage, traction friction, insufficient braking force of the brake or failure of the control system to go beyond the bottom or top floors of the terminating depot to avoid the elevator car Or direct hit the bottom or overhead, to protect the safety of passengers and equipment.

Safety gear 

In an unexpected situation in the car (counterweight), the rail can be clamped while the car is stopped and the car is firmly held on the rail. This device is called a safety gear. (Safety gear with safety gear, safety gear and two-way safety gear)

Speed limiter 

Speed limiter is a device that controls the speed of the car (counterweight). When the car reaches the limit speed, the speed limiter of the car (counterweight) starts to act and acts on the safety gear, forcing it to clamp the guide rail and brake the car. (Speed limiter are generally in the top, while the bottom is called tension wheel)

Import device 

Introduced by the device installed in the metal cover inside the knife switch and wear capacitor filter. When the elevator is out of service for a long time, use the switch to cut off the power. The filter is used to prevent clutter from interfering with radio reception from entering the grid and to prevent high-frequency currents flowing through the conductors from the sparking contacts from entering the grid. Low-frequency (50Hz) supply voltages pass unimpeded through the filter.

Automatic switch 

The automatic switch on the elevator is used to protect the motor and electrical equipment from exceeding the allowable current, including short-circuit current. Automatic switch by the current core coil, contact system with a spring and lag time of the thermal mechanism. When the current in the protection circuit is higher than the allowable value, the iron core in the coil is attracted to release the spring that drives the contact, the electrical circuit is interrupted, and the automatic switch is manually reset.


The transformers on the elevators are used to reduce the voltage to the control circuit, the car lighting circuit, the signal and the repair lighting circuit. Such transformers are called step-down transformers. The step-down transformer can reduce the 380V voltage to 220V, 100V, 42V, 2OV, and reduce the voltage of 22OV to 100V, 42V, 30V and 2OV. The transformers used are both single-phase and three-phase. Single-phase transformers can be used as power supply or connected to AC devices and meters, or connected to single-phase rectifiers; three-phase transformers can power three-phase rectifier and door drive motors.


Rectifier is an electrical component used to power the DC electrical equipment. The elevator adopts the biphase rectifier combined according to the bridge principle diagram and the three-phase rectifier which significantly reduces the ripple rectification current. It is guaranteed that the electromagnetic relays, contactors, interlocking buttons and other components powered by the rectifier work more smoothly. In order to smooth the rectification current service Chong also uses a capacitor in parallel with the three-phase rectifier.

Knife switch

Knife switch installed in a separate insulation board or control panel. When the knife switch is turned on, it can be moved to touch the spring fixed contacts.


The transfer switch is used to close and cut several electrical circuits simultaneously. Y Ⅱ universal switch is the most widely used.


Contactor used to remotely close and cut off the power loop electrical appliances. The contactor's power contacts are closed using an electromagnetic system.

Electromagnetic relay

Electromagnetic relay Used to control the switch of electrical equipment in the circuit. Like the contactor, the relay closes the magnetic system with the moving iron and the contact system.


The selector is used to automatically select the direction of car operation. After pressing the elevator's start button, it can also be used to automatically stop the car on a given floor and to display the car's position in the shaft. The status of the selector electrical contacts is reflected in the accuracy of the position of the elevator car in the shaft. Floor switch systems, floor interlocking systems, and relay selectors with car position sensing or reed switch sensors are available for selectors on elevators.

Master electrical appliances

Master electrical appliances refer to the control electrical appliances that are operated by the driver or passengers directly using the elevator to start or stop.

Terminal switch

The terminal switch is located in the shaft or on the winch to protect the car from rising or falling outside the permissible horizontal range. There are two terminal switches in the shaft: one slightly above the upper floor and the other slightly below the floor. When these terminal switches are applied, the power-off unit secured to the car is de-energized. Only one terminal switch is installed on the winch, and the claw fastened on the transmission rope of the speed governor acts on it.

Door chain contacts

Door interlock contacts are used to check the condition of the shaft and the car door and the shaft lock.

Brake electromagnet

Classified by power category and core rated travel value. According to the type of power supply, the electromagnet is divided into DC and AC (three-phase and single-phase); according to the core rated travel value can be divided into long travel (travel 30 ~ 120mm) and short travel (travel 2 ~ 5mm). DC electromagnet than the AC electromagnet closed every hour, noise, smooth operation.

Light signal plate

It is used to display the signal of the car's position in the shaft and record the light signal from the floor platform. On the light signal plate indicating the position of the car, a visible light figure or a mark placed between two layers of glass and illuminated from the inside is used as the signal.

There are two lights light signal indicator. The light bulb within the light-emitting film according to the provisions of the layout method shows that the car will arrive at the floor number of digital.

Floor light signal

Passenger ladder for public buildings. The middle floor is fitted with two lights and a pointing light signal. On the ground floor and the top floor, a light and a single light signal are installed.

Signal display

Used to signal the empty car to the escalator with a ladder floor. The display consists of an electromagnet and a switch button that calls for a floor number. The number of electromagnets is equal to the number of floors served by the elevator.

Signal bell

Used to call the car to the ladder of the floor and elevator fault signal to call service personnel. The contactless AC sparks ring on the elevator.


The same as the track configured in the full height of the shaft, to guide the correct direction of the car and the weight of the vertical member is called the guide rail.

Well Road

The structure in which the car and counterweight move along the guide rail is called a hoistway. In addition to the guide rail ladder in addition to the rope tensioning device, the buffer, the work of steel and balanced steel ropes, floor appliances, electrical wiring and flexible cables.

engine room

Room equipped with electrical lighting, and some equipped with heating, ventilation equipment, room installation hoist, speed limiter, control panel (electromagnetic station), electromechanical converter, transformers and other equipment room called the engine room. (Some are some of the organic room is no machine room, machine room elevators are generally set up in the middle of the host)

Car elevator

Car is called the closed structure of people and goods transport. Except for special-purpose elevators and construction elevators, all elevators are equipped with a car.


Frame horizontal frame and floor known as the platform, there are two types of car floor: mobile and fixed.


The purpose of counterweight is to balance the weight of the car with the payload section to reduce energy consumption and motor power consumption. In addition, on the winch with the rope drive pulley, the weight ratio can maintain the ratio of the stress required for the rope between the car and the counterweight side. This is necessary in order to obtain the proper friction between the steel rope and the rope drive pulley groove.

Related settings edit

Rated load

Refers to the design of the elevator load, understood as the manufacturer to ensure the normal operation of the allowable load, in kilograms. It is the main basis for the design and manufacture of the manufacturer, the user is the main basis for the selection of elevators, so it is the main parameter of the elevator.

Rated speed

Rated speed refers to the design of the elevator operating speed, can also be understood as the manufacturer to ensure the normal operation of the elevator speed, in units of m / s. The rated speed is also the main basis for elevator design, manufacture and selection. It is also the main parameter of the elevator.

Drag the way

Refers to the type of power used by the elevator. Can be divided into AC power drive, DC power drive, hydraulic drive.

Car size

Refers to the car's internal dimensions and dimensions, "depth × width" said. The internal dimensions are determined by the type of ladder and the rated load, and the dimensions relate to the design of the hoistway.

The type of door

Refers to the structure of elevator doors. Can be divided into fractional doors, side-by-side doors, straight-type doors and so on.